Bag Holder Definition

Have you heard about the term bag holder and wondered what in the world it means to hold a bag in a finance-related context? Then you find the right place. In this article, you learn the definitions, discover some examples and finally, you can evaluate if you are a bag holder or not.

Definitions and Explanations

A bag holder refers to an investor who holds a losing position in a stock or other asset for an extended period, waiting for the price to rebound so they can exit without taking a loss.

The key characteristics of being a bag holder are:

  • Holding an asset that has declined significantly in value below its purchase price.
  • Refusing or being unable to sell at a loss and realizing those losses.
  • Hoping and waiting for the asset’s price to recover to at least their buy-in level so they can exit without a loss.

Being a bag holder is generally seen as a negative in investing, as it means stubbornly holding a losing position rather than cutting losses and redeploying that capital into potentially more productive investments.

Psychological biases like loss aversion, endowment effect, and disposition effect can contribute to becoming a bag holder. Successful investors aim to avoid this by setting stop-loss levels and not getting emotionally attached to losing positions.

In short, a bag holder is someone holding a losing position, often refusing to sell to avoid realizing the loss in hopes the asset will recover. It implies holding the losing “bag” for an extended period. Being a bag holder is generally viewed negatively as it means stubbornly clinging to a loser rather than cutting losses. It goes against prudent investing principles of limiting losses and diversifying portfolios.

Psychology of Being a Bag Holder

The psychological factors enabling bag holding are powerful – loss aversion means realizing losses are deeply painful.

The endowment effect makes owners place higher subjective value on things merely because they already own them. The disposition effect causes investors to hold losers too long but sell winners too soon. Overconfidence about being “right” on the trade can reinforce holding behavior.

Examples of Bag Holding

Classic examples are holding past bull market winners for years into a bear market decline or holding an obsolete technology stock that’s been disrupted by new competitors. Cryptocurrency investors may become bag holders by buying expensive coins near cycle tops and then watching prices crater over 80-90% for years.

Avoid Becoming a Bag Holder

Setting strict stop-loss exits based on position sizing models, not hopes or gut feelings, is key. Having maximum pain thresholds and mandating losses get cut at those levels prevents emotional bag-holding. Traders should also avoid overconcentrated positions that allow a single loser to constitute a large part of the portfolio.

Risks and Downsides

Beyond the opportunity costs, bag holding ties up psychological capital and emotional energy fixating on potential recoveries that may never occur. This can lead to distortions in future trade analysis and decision-making. Critically, capital tied up in bags cannot be deployed into new, more prosperous opportunities.

Cutting Losses

Prudent money management rules, such as never risking more than 1-2% of capital on a single trade, can minimize bag holding. Having a process to regularly review losers and cut them at pre-set levels is vital. Setting trailing stop losses that rise with winners but release losers quickly is another technique.

Trading Strategies

Strategies emphasizing diversification across multiple assets and positions with defined exit criteria tend to reduce bag-holding risks. Taking profits partially along the way via scaling out of trades is another way to avoid all-or-nothing emotional holding patterns. Overall, rule-based trading with strict risk controls is key.

Alexander Voigt, CEO
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Alexander Voigt is the founder of DayTradingZ, was a regular contributor to Benzinga and has been featured and quoted on leading financial websites such as,, Business Insider and Forbes.